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Diet

Significance of Healthy Food for Good Health

                       Healthy Balanced Diet

                       What do we eat and why

                  Food during different stages of life

                            Healthy eating tips                 

                                Super foods

                           Acid Alkali Balance              

                               Vegetarianism

                             Glycaemic Index                    

                               Antioxidants

                            The Ayurvedic Diet

               The Dietary Precautions of Sickness

                Diet and Weight Management

Significance of Healthy Food for Good Health

It is said that ‘We are what we eat’. We all know that we eat to live. But more than giving the required energy to live (and satisfying our taste buds) food that we eat may helps us in a number of ways if it is healthy.

  • It gives energy as said.
  • It is required for growth and repair of body.
  • It helps to keep us healthy and avoid sickness.
  • It helps mind & body functions to work at best.
  • It helps in meeting requirement of various stages of life.
  • It may even help in treatment of diseases.

Apart from various diseases due to deficiency of various food components, our nutrition has a role in some of the major diseases of today’s life like Hypertension, Diabetes, Chronic Heart or Renal insufficiency, Gout, Obesity, Inflammatory Bowel Disease etc. It is, therefore, vital to choose our food in quantity & quality with utmost care

Healthy Balanced Diet

A healthy balanced diet is one which provides the right amount and proportion of necessary food components required by our body. It is not a fixed type but varies with respect to our age, gender, lifestyle, health status etc. The underlying idea is to provide to our body what is healthy and necessary in quantity & quality and to avoid what is not. One does not need a training & degree in nutrition to select healthy balanced diet. For this, we need understanding that why such diet is good for us and some common sense selection along with sensible balance of taste temptation & nutritive value. To select a healthy balanced diet, it is helpful to know some basic facts about food & nutrition.

What do we eat and why

The food we eat contains macro nutrients and micro nutrients. They all have a unique role in our diet. Their deficiency leads to various health problems and diseases. The food components are energy, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibers and water.

  • Energy : This is the basic requirement of body. The energy need of body depends on factors like age, gender, body size, height, weight, activity level, lifestyle, health status and also the climate and environment.  It is measured in calorie. Fats, carbohydrates and proteins are source of energy. Adult males require 2400 – 3900 calorie, adult female require 1900 – 3000 calorie, pregnant woman – 2200 calorie, lactating woman 2600 calorie, infants 100 calorie / kg weight, children (1 – 12 years) – 1200 – 2100 depending on age, adolescent boys – 2500 – 3000 calorie, adolescent girls – 2200 calorie.
  • Carbohydrates : These are primary source of energy and helps in energy balance, energy reserve (glycogen), growth of body tissue and function of body systems. These are of two types. One is simple carbohydrates which are available in sugar, honey, fruits, milk etc. It gives instant energy but rises too quickly in blood. Other is complex carbohydrates which are available in wheat, rice, corn, root vegetables etc. These give sustained energy.
  • Proteins : Proteins are the building blocks of body tissue. They help in growth & repair of body, give energy and are necessary for good immunity, oxygen carrying capacity, acid base & electrolyte balance and help various chemical reactions in the body in the form of enzymes. Proteins consist of amino acids and it is necessary to get essential amino acids. Both plant and animal proteins must be included in diet. Good source of proteins are Meat, cheese, egg, fish, milk, poultry, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds etc.
  • Fats : Fats are indicated in some diseases but Lipids or fats are also important in diet. They provide energy reserve, helps in insulation, in thermoregulation, in protection of body tissue, required for fat soluble vitamins, for brain function and for some body chemicals like hormones etc. These are of three types. Saturated fats are not good for health. These are available in butter, lard, coconut and palm oil. Monounsaturated fats & Polyunsaturated fats are good for health as they lower the risk of heart disease & give essential fatty acids. Monounsaturated fats are found in avocado, olive oil, peanut, canola etc. Polyunsaturated fats are found in corn, cotton seed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soybean etc. Other important lipids are phospholipids & sterols.
  • Vitamins : These are complex organic substances, required in small quantity but are must for various body functions. Their deficiency can badly impair health. These are divided into fat soluble (A, D, E & K) and water soluble (B Complex & C) vitamins. Fat soluble vitamins are

(1) Vitamin A or Retinol. Necessary for growth & vitality, resistance against infection, nourishment and function of mucus membrane / skin / hair, for vision & eye. Found in  liver, whole milk, egg yolk, cheese, butter, carrots, beet, turnip, dark green leafy vegetables, mango, papaya, apricots, almonds.

(2) Vitamin B 1 or Thiamin. Necessary for nervous system, carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Found in wheat germ, whole grain, cereals, pulses, nuts, peas, milk, egg, banana, apple.

(3) Vitamin B 2 or Riboflavin. Necessary for various metabolisms, for healthy skin, hair and nails. Found in green leafy vegetables, wheat, cheese, milk, eggs, almonds, sunflower seeds etc.

(4) Vitamin B 3 or Niacin. Necessary for circulatory & nervous system, protein & carbohydrate metabolism. Found in liver, fish, peanuts, whole wheat,  green leafy vegetables etc.

(5) Vitamin B 5 or Pantothenic acid. Necessary for adrenal gland function, fight against stress & toxins, for vitality. Found in whole grain, cereals, green vegetables, peas, beans, peanuts, egg yolk etc.

(6) Vitamin B 6 or Pyridoxine. Necessary for protein & fat absorption, prevents nervous, skin & degenerative diseases. Found in wheat germ, yeast, cereals, pulses, banana, soybean, walnut, milk, egg, meat, fresh vegetables.

(7) Vitamin B 9 or Folic acid.  Necessary for cell division & growth, red blood cells, healing process. Found in dark green leafy vegetables, mushrooms, nuts, peanuts, yeast etc.

(8) Vitamin B 12 or Cyanocobalamin. Necessary for nervous system, red blood cells, fat metabolism. Found in milk, meat, egg, banana, peanuts.

(9) Vitamin C or Ascorbic acid. Necessary for growth & maintenance of body tissue, healing, fight against stress, infection, toxins & cold. Found in citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, sprouts etc.

(10) Vitamin D or Cholecalciferol. Necessary for bones & teeth, thyroid functioning, absorption of nutrition. Found in  sunlight,  fish, eggs, butter, meat, sprouts etc.

(11) Vitamin E or Tocopherols. Necessary for reproductive function, fertility, sex hormones. It acts as antioxidant, delays ageing. Found in whole grains, vegetable oils, leafy vegetables, sprouts etc.

(12) Vitamin K or Phylloquinone & others. Necessary for blood clotting, bone proteins and liver function. Found in leafy vegetables, cabbage, milk, egg, meat etc.

  • Minerals :

(1) Calcium Necessary for bones & teeth, contraction of muscles, blood clotting and other enzyme functions. Found in milk, milk products, whole wheat, leafy vegetables, carrot, orange, almond, figs, walnuts.

(2) Phosphorus Necessary for bones, teeth, nerves & brain. Found in cereals, pulses, nuts, egg yolk, milk, legumes etc.

(3) Iron. Necessary for hemoglobin in blood, vitality, resistance to infection. Found in grapes, resins, spinach, green vegetables, whole grains, cereals, beets, dates, egg yolk etc.

(4) Magnesium  Necessary for nervous, muscular and digestive system, energy metabolism, bones and teeth. Found in grapes, figs, lemons, whole grain, celery, cauliflower, orange, lettuce, cucumber, almond etc.

(5) Sodium Necessary for regulation of body water content and electrolyte balance, energy utilization and nerve function, absorption of certain nutrients and water from the gut. Found in table salt, milk, celery, spinach, cucumber, lemon, orange, watermelon, grapes etc.

(6) Potassium. Necessary for water & electrolyte balance, functioning of heart & other muscles, making of new tissue. Found in dried fruit, banana, vegetables, milk, potatoes, butter milk etc.

(7) Iodine. Necessary for thyroid function, energy metabolism, skin. Found in kelp, sea food, lettuce, turnip, fortified salt, pineaaple, guava, garlic etc.

(8) Chlorine. Necessary for digestive acid, hormones. Found in cheese, milk products, berries, tomato, rice, radish, lentils, coconut etc.

(9) Sulphur Necessary for removal of waste from body, for skin /hair /nerves. Found in onion, radish, cabbage, cheese, carrot, egg yolk etc.

(10) Copper Necessary for hemoglobin & red blood cells, digestive enzymes. Found in almond, beans, peas, lentils, whole wheat etc.

(11) Cobalt   Necessary  for blood cell formation. Found in liver, leafy vegetables.

(12) Manganese  Necessary for nerves, brain, muscle action. Found in citrus fruits, nuts, grains, fish, egg yolk.

(13) Zinc Necessary for enzyme action, healing, skin & hair, vitamin A transport, immunity against infection, sexual maturity. Found in milk, meat, beans, whole grains, nuts, seeds etc.

(14) Selenium Necessary for prevention of damage to hemoglobin & other body tissues, prevention of premature ageing. Found in yeast, garlic, mushroom, milk, egg, seafood etc.

  • Fibres

Fibres are edible parts of plants that are not broken down and absorbed in the human small intestine. Some are cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignin etc. They serve many important functions in food like :

  1. They provide low calorie / no calorie bulk to diet. This helps in giving feeling of fullness and thus helps in weight management.
  2. They hold water and gives soft bulk to stool thereby preventing constipation and help in elimination of waste.
  3. They hold few chemicals in stomach and intestine, this helps in slow & less absorption of sugar, cholesterol etc. This helps in management of diseases like diabetes, high cholesterol etc.
  4. Low fibre diet is said to be associated with diseases like diverticulitis, colon cancer etc.

Fibres are found in wheat bran, whole grains, legumes, fruits & vegetables or can be taken as Isabgula husk.

  • Water

Water is essential to live. Its deficiency can be fatal. About 50 – 70 % of our body is water. It has many functions in the body. The amount of fluid needed varies between people and according to age, time of year, climatic conditions, diet, health and levels of physical activity. We can obtain our fluid requirements from a number of sources such as water and other drinks, as well as from the food we eat. One should drink plenty of water to keep healthy. Do not wait for thirst to drink water. One should drink about 1.5 – 2 litres of water a day. Water is necessary for a number of reasons like :

–   It is necessary component of every single cell of our body.

–   It acts as a lubricant for joints, eyes and almost every surface and tissue of the    body.

–   It helps in digestion and absorption of food right from swallow to excretion.

–   It provides the medium in which most reactions in the body take place.

–   It acts as a cushion for the nervous system.

–   It is the medium of transportation as in blood, lymph, bile etc.

–   It helps to regulate body temperature.

–   It helps in elimination of toxins from the body.

–   It is good for skin, hair and nails

Food during different stages of life

One must be careful about nutrition during different stages of life. Every stage of life from infancy to old age has a different requirement. Infants and children have a rapidly growing body so they need high energy & protein diet along with higher intake of nutrients like calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D etc required for growing body and mind. Pregnant and lactating mothers need to be extra particular about food hygiene to avoid food poisoning & infection. They must choose nourishing diet for themselves and child. Fibres must be taken to avoid constipation. Pregnant mothers require supplements like folic acid, iron etc and lactating mothers require Vitamin D supplement. Students must make qualitative changes in diet like higher proteins to assist their mental work. Adults must be careful about energy balance to avoid obesity and make necessary changes in diet according to lifestyle. Old age also has specific requirement. One must take into consideration decreasing body needs and health status. On the other hand lack of care in taking required nutrition can severely affect health.

Healthy eating tips

  • Include health promoting food in diet.
  • Avoid or minimize artificial food and additives.
  • Have regular eating schedule & eat balanced diet.
  • Watch out for food allergy, intolerance, spoiled food.
  • Avoid unnecessary / mega doses of vitamins and minerals.
  • Observe weekly / occasional fast to revitalize digestive system.
  • Fruits should not be mixed with other foods. Avoid incompatible foods.
  • Avoid alcohol & smoking. These are bad for digestion and overall health.
  • Be selective about food. Eat keeping in mind age, body needs, health etc.
  • Avoid or minimize unhealthy foods like refined carbohydrate, unhealthy fats etc.
  • Maintain oral hygiene, chew your food well, it helps digestion and keeps you healthy. Eat slowly.
  • Eat diversity food. Select from variety of cereals, pulses, fruits, vegetables, milk products etc. Prefer seasonal foods like seasonal fruits. This provides higher quality nourishment.
  • Do not surrender totally to taste temptation. Keep a good balance of taste and healthy nutrition. Although it is not desirable to completely avoid eating out / junk food but one can keep hygiene in mind. Try to be high on eating wholesome, nourishing food.

Super foods

Super foods are those which improve health and have profound preventive and curative action on various health conditions.

  • Aloe Vera : Improves general health & immunity. Helps in skin disorders.
  • Banana : Rich in energy & nutrients, helps in constipation, hypertension, PMS, anemia etc.
  • Carrots : Good for vision, protects from cancer, arthritis, heart disease etc.
  • Cruciferous Vegetables : Rich in antioxidants, protects from cancer.
  • Fish : Rich in antioxidants & polyunsaturated fats, helps in high cholesterol, hypertension, arrhythmia, goiter, crohn’s disease. Good for joints & skin.
  • Flaxseed : Rich in essential fatty acids, helps in angina, hypertension lupus & other skin disorders, parkinson disease & other nerve disorders, fights infection, improve uterine function.
  • Garlic : Contains antioxidants, helps in cancer, heart disease, asthma, atherosclerosis, boost immunity and healing powers.
  • Ginseng : Improves energy & immunity. Improves concentration, reduces stress.
  • Green Tea : Rich in antioxidants, improves immunity. Helps in cancer, high cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, infections, premature ageing etc.
  • Red Grapes : Improves cardiac function, reduce blood vessel clogging, gastric ulcer, stroke, osteoporosis and inflammatory diseases.
  • Soy : Helps in cancer, high cholesterol, osteoporosis etc.
  • Spinach : Rich in antioxidants, helps in cancer, anemia, heart disease, mental disorders. Improves vision.
  • Spirulina : Improves energy & immunity. Helps liver function.
  • Wheat Grass : Gives energy & rejuvenation, increase hemoglobin. Said to fight tumors.
  • Whole Grains : Boost immunity, helps in cancer, arthritis, infertility & alzheimer’s disease.
  • Yogurt : Helps in digestion. ulcers, improves immunity.

Some more facts about nutrition

  1. Acid Alkali Balance : Our diet must maintain our body’s acid alkali balance. Acid diets are associated with many diseases like premature old age, rheumatism, hypertension, arthritis etc. Four fifth of our diet be alkaline diet such as juicy fruits, tubers, leafy vegetables, legumes etc. Cereals, grains, nuts, bread, meat, sugar etc are acid diets.
  2. Vegetarianism: It is said to be good for healthy living. Vegetarian diet helps in digestive process, hypertension, high cholesterol, constipation, cancer, obesity etc.
  3. Glycaemic Index : Glycaemic Index of food refers to how fast it raises the blood sugar level. It runs from 0 – 100. Glucose has GI value of 100 as reference and other food are compared to it. Foods with high GI value raise the blood sugar rapidly but one feels hungry quickly. Foods with high GI value give steady supply of energy and satisfaction. Foods with low GI value are helpful in diabetes, obesity, heart disease, high cholesterol etc. Some low GI value foods are – roasted peanuts, low fat yogurt, lentils, dried soybeans, whole milk, apples, pears etc. High GI value foods are – glucose, honey, potato, steamed rice, puffed wheat, cornflakes, French fries, white bread etc.
  4. Antioxidants : Antioxidants are substances that protect body cells against the effects of free radicals which are produced when body breaks down food, by metabolism, by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and radiation. Free radicals can damage cells, and are said to cause heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Antioxidant substances include Beta-carotene, Lutein, Lycopene,  Selenium, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Vitamin E. Antioxidants are found in many foods like wheat grass, green tea, garlic, fruits and vegetables, nuts, grains,  poultry and fish.

The Ayurvedic Diet

According to ancient ayurvedic medical science sickness of a person is the result of imbalance of humour in body called dosha. Tridosha (vata, pitta and kapha) are formed from combination of five elements (called panchtatva) which are earth, fire, air, water and ether. Ayurvedic diet in addition to nourishment, corrects the tridosha and brings it back to balance to give good health.

  • Vata Dosha : People with vata dosha will suffer from worries, anxieties, impulsiveness, impatience, agitation, insecurity, insomnia, dryness, headaches, constipation, arthritis, stiff joints, cramps etc. To regain balance they must prefer warm soothing food with some fat, milk, warm cereals, nuts, warm drinks, sweet and sour food.
  • Pitta Dosha : People with pitta dosha will suffer from anger, being critical & bossy, arguementative, fitful sleep, disturbing dreams, acidity, diarrhea, hot flushes, skin eruptions, fever, night sweats etc. To regain balance they must prefer bitter, sweet and astringent food, cool or warm food but not hot, complex carbohydrates, fruits, milk, beans & other green vegetables. They must take less stimulants, sour & spicy food.
  • Kapha Dosha : People with kapha dosha will suffer from sluggishness, apathy, sadness, lethargy, clinginess, excess sleep, obesity, mucus congestion, diabetes, water retention, poor digestion etc. To regain balance they must prefer warm light food cooked with less water, stimulating food, spicy / pungent/  astringent taste, hot water lemon & hot ginger tea is good. They must take less of salt, sweets, dairy and fats.

The Dietary Precautions of Sickness

Food plays a crucial role in treatment of sickness. Good nutritional choices can aid treatment and helps in early recovery. Factors which assist in selecting food during sickness are :

  • Underlying disease condition.
  • Overall health status.
  • Diet factors required to be altered.
  • Patient’s tolerance to food.

Some of the benefits of such dietary modifications are :

  • It keeps good nutritional status.
  • It reduces complications of sickness.
  • It makes treatment more effective.
  • It avoids & corrects deficiency state.
  • It gives required energy to fight sickness.
  • It gives required change in body weight.
  • It gives rest to body by avoiding load on digestion.

Some common precautions are :

  • Avoid high salt food in hypertension.
  • Avoid food with high glycaemic index in diabetes.
  • Avoid excessive stimulants and spices in peptic ulcer & gastritis.
  • Avoid high protein diet in gout and hepatic failure.
  • Proteins and sodium is restricted in renal failure.
  • Easily digestible, high calorie & good protein diet is good in tuberculosis.
  • Take plenty of fibres in constipation, high cholesterol, diabetes.
  • Replenish water and electrolyte losses in diarrhea.
  • Take indicated nutrient in deficiency diseases like rickets, osteoporosis, anemia, hypothyroidism, night blindness, beri beri, scurvy etc.
  • Avoid indicated nutrient in allergic state and malabsorption syndrome.

Diet and Weight Management

 Diet is said to be one way of weight management. But one must be very clear in what to do and what not. Some people resort to crash dieting and starve to lose weight. But such measure only spoils health & invites various diseases. Apart from various diseases like deficiency diseases of various nutrients, lack of energy, disorders in various body functions, disturbed water & electrolyte balance and disordered digestion, it gives many psychological disorders like poor self esteem, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, depression etc. In fact one need not starve to lose weight. One can eat and enjoy anything and still get required weight along with even better health & prevention of many diseases like arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, gallstones etc. All one is required to do is to adopt a flexible and sensible diet plan. See Fitness and Weight Management for details.